Friday, September 25, 2015

Domain Controller Machine$ Account To Dump Hashes Notes

In case you missed it, Mubix posted this post a few days ago:

The great part of the post in case you didn't see/understand is that you can dump hashes from the domain controller using the Domain Controller machine account (example: CORP-MYDC$).  So finally a use for all those machine accounts you normally just cut out from pwdumps :-)

Whats also important about this from the defensive perspective is you can roll the krbtgt password but if an attacker still has the ability to talk any domain controller (and at some point dumped the full domain hashes) they can attempt to re-pull the hashes or most importantly the new krbtgt hash to create new golden tickets.

I'm going to steal Rob's impacket secretsdump output here in case it disappears in the future.

python -hashes aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0 -just-dc LAB/DC2k8_1\$@

Impacket v0.9.14-dev - Copyright 2002-2015 Core Security Technologies

[*] Dumping Domain Credentials (domain\uid:rid:lmhash:nthash)
[*] Using the DRSUAPI method to get NTDS.DIT secrets

Note: this is a 1-to-1 functionality, meaning DC2k8_1 hash needs to authenticate against DC2k8_1 IP address. If you do this against DC2k8_2 obviously it will fail.

Not sure on how to address this honestly.  More frequent machine password changes for domain controllers may be in order and initial reading says you can use netdom.exe to make the change as well. More info here: < --netdom.exe info

If anyone has resources/suggestions on managing this please post up.


Wednesday, September 23, 2015

Ways To Load Kerberos Tickets

Everyone is aware of the awesomeness that Mimikatz is and most likely golden tickets. Mimikatz ships with lots of kerberos functionality.

Just wanted to jot down some quick notes on using these tickets.

1. See the links in the resources section to generate a golden ticket.  Chris Truncer's post is more than clear on how to do it, so I wont reproduce the content. What's more interesting (to me) is that you can generate these tickets offline on a host that is not connected to the network you are working on.  This is perhaps handy if you have a bunch of host instrumentation on the network you are attacking and don't want to risk uploading and running Mimikatz on the host.

2. With this .kirbi ticket created you now need to load it into your session. You have a few options:

  • Mimikatz via Pass The Ticket (ptt) functionality
  • You can load it via the kiwi module in meterpreter -- stealing Chris' image here:

    • Via WCE kerberos functionality
      • -K              Dump Kerberos tickets to file (unix & 'windows wce' format)
      • -k              Read Kerberos tickets from file and insert into Windows cache
    What's important to note here is that WCE will NOT load a Mimikatz generated ticket (didn't try ccache format). What you CAN do is  load the ticket via mimikatz on your offline host then export with with WCE, then upload WCE and the WCE ticket (wce_krbtkts) to the host and load it into the cache there.

    3. Depending on the type of alerting when you make a ticket it uses the 500 account by default. Assuming you aren't spoofing that particular account you might get the added bonus of having your actions attributed to another account.

    Additional Gotchas

    1. CT's post uses a fake user. If you do this, according to @gentilkiwi you have to use the ticket within 20 minutes of creation.  Mimikatz does let you create a ticket in the future with the  /startoffset option
    2. Impacket currently (5 SEP 15 --this post will be published later) will NOT work with a fake or inactive user where windows will let it slide.  So if you make a golden ticket you need it to be with an active user.  I suspect beto will fix this soon.
    3. There is a lot of guidance around detecting this attack by using looking for tickets with a 10 year lifespan (this is the Mimikatz default). You can avoid this using the /endin option with Mimikatz.  More here from MS:



    Saturday, September 5, 2015

    DevOps Days DC 2015 Talk Video

    Here is  good copy of Ken and I's DevOps Days DC talk:
    "DevOops & How I hacked you"

    DevOpsDays DC 2015 - 30 - DevOops & How I hacked you - Chris Gates, Facebook & Ken Johnson, nVisium from on Vimeo.